Sex influenced traits
Analytical models usually assume an additive sex effect by treating it as a covariate to identify genetic associations with sex-influenced traits. Their underlying assumptions are violated by ignoring interactions of sex with genetic factors and heterogeneous genetic effects by sex. Methods to deal with the problems are compared and discussed in this article. Especially, heterogeneity of genetic variance by sex can be assessed employing a mixed model with genetic relationship matrix constructed from genome-wide nucleotide variant information. Estimating genetic architecture of each sex would help understand different prevalence, course, and severity of complex diseases between women and men in the era of personalized medicine. Sex is determined by genetic information in human.
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Sex-Limited, Linked, and Influenced Traits
Sex-influenced trait - Oxford Reference
Sex-limited genes are genes that are present in both sexes of sexually reproducing species but are expressed in only one sex and have no penetrance , or are simply 'turned off' in the other. This term is restricted to autosomal traits, and should not be confused with sex-linked characteristics, which have to do with genetic differences on the sex chromosomes see sex-determination system. Sex-limited genes are also distinguished from sex-influenced genes, where the same gene will show differential expression in each sex. However, the resulting phenotypes caused by sex-limited genes are present in only one sex and can be seen prominently in various species that typically show high sexual dimorphism. Sex-limited genes are responsible for sexual dimorphism , which is a phenotypic directly observable difference between males and females of the same species regardless of genotype. An example of sex-limited genes are genes which control horn development in sheep:  while both males and females possess the same genes controlling horn development, they are only expressed in males. Sex-limited genes are also responsible for some female beetles' inability to grow exaggerated mandibles,  research that is discussed in detail later in this article.
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A phenotypic characteristic or trait such as male pattern baldness that is expressed differently in males and females, usually because its expression depends on androgens or oestrogens, and that is controlled by a single gene that is dominant in males but recessive in females, so that, for example, men who inherit the gene from either parent lose hair as they age, whereas women do so only if they inherit it from both parents and are thus homozygotes. Also called a sex-limited trait. Compare sex-linked. Subjects: Science and technology — Psychology. All Rights Reserved.
The sex-influenced trait is autosomal. It has a different intensity of expression in two sexes. For e. Baldness is a phenotypic characteristics or trait that is manifested in male, this expression depends on oestrogen or androgens and controlled by a single gene that is dominant in males but recessive in female. For example, hair growth patterns have 2 alleles, one allele produces hair to grow over the head and one that causes the pattern of baldness.
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